Fungal infection of the nail, medically called Onychomycosis, can be classified as 4 basic types.

  1. Distal Subungual Onychomycosis (DSO)

    • The most common form of nail fungus. It is usually caused by a fungus called T. Rubrum, which also cause athlete’s foot. T. Rubrum infects the nail bed and underneath the nail plate that changes nail color into yellow/white.

    • As the infection becomes worse, nail gets more brittle and separated from the nail bed.

  2. White Superficial Onychomycosis (WSO)

    • The second most common form of fungal nail infection. It is caused by a fungal infection of the nail at the superficial layer.

    • In the early stages, you will see white spots on your nails. As the symptom develops, the white chalky powder will start covering the whole nail.

    • Since it is often misdiagnosed as keratin granulations, which is not caused by a fungus, a laboratory test should be performed for the diagnoses.

  3. Proximal subungual onychomycosis (PSO)

    • The least common form of fungal nail infection, but it is found most commonly among people who has an impaired immune system, such as patients with HIV.

    • It is the fungal infection of the newly formed nail plate

    • The infection causes nail discoloration and separation of the nail from the nail bed.

  4. Candidal onychomycosis

    • Candida is a yeast that causes fungal nail infections.

    • It is more common in fingernails than toenails, especially among those who often immerse their hands in water.

    • People usually get this type of infection when they have trauma or injury on their nails. Unlike other types of onychomycosis, it may be painful.